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Prostate diseases causes symptoms and treatment options

Prostate Diseases Causes Symptoms And Treatment Options

Prostate Diseases: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment Options

The prostate gland is an important component of male reproductive health. It is a small gland positioned between the bladder and the penis. Semen is produced by the prostate gland and is used to nourish and transport sperm. Unfortunately, the prostate gland, like all other organs in the body, is susceptible to illness. This article will go through the most prevalent prostate diseases, as well as their causes, symptoms, and treatment choices.

Understanding the prostate gland and its function

As mentioned earlier, the prostate gland is a small gland located in the male reproductive system. It produces a fluid that mixes with sperm to form semen, which is then ejaculated during sexual intercourse. The prostate gland protects the urethra, which is a tube that drains urine from the bladder. This is why an enlarged prostate can cause urinary problems.

Common prostate diseases and their causes

1.  Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)

Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) is a common prostate disease that affects older men. It is distinguished by prostate gland enlargement, which might result in urinary problems. Although the specific aetiology of BPH is unknown, it is thought to be connected to changes in hormone levels as men age.

2. Prostatitis

Prostatitis is an inflammation of the prostate gland, which can be caused by a bacterial infection or a non-bacterial source. The exact cause of prostatitis is unknown, but it is believed to be related to a weakened immune system or a history of urinary tract infections.

3. Prostate Cancer

Prostate cancer is cancer that starts in the prostate gland. It is the world's second most common cancer for men. Although the exact cause of prostate cancer is unknown, it is considered to be caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors.

Symptoms of prostate diseases to look out for

The symptoms of prostate disease can vary depending on the specific condition. However, there are some common symptoms to look out for, including:

  • Frequent urination
  • Blood in the urine or semen
  • Difficulty starting or stopping urination
  • Weak or interrupted urine flow
  • Painful urination
  • Pain or discomfort in the pelvic area

If you experience any of these symptoms, you should consult a urologist, since they could be a sign of prostate disease.

Screening and diagnosis of prostate diseases

Screening for prostate diseases typically involves a digital rectal exam (DRE) and a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) blood test. During a DRE, the doctor will insert a gloved finger into the rectum to feel for any abnormalities in the prostate gland. The PSA blood test measures the level of PSA, a protein produced by the prostate gland, in the blood. High levels of PSA may indicate a prostate disease, such as cancer.

If your doctor suspects that you have prostate disease, they may recommend further tests, such as a biopsy, MRI, orultrasound, to confirm the diagnosis.

Treatment options for prostate diseases


Depending on the specific prostate disease, medications may be prescribed to manage symptoms or slow the progression of the disease. For example, alpha-blockers can help relax the muscles in the prostate gland and bladder neck to improve urine flow in men with BPH. Antibiotics may be prescribed to treat prostatitis caused by a bacterial infection.


Surgery may be necessary to treat certain prostate diseases, such as BPH or prostate cancer. For BPH, transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) may be performed to remove the excess prostate tissue that is causing urinary problems. For prostate cancer, a radical prostatectomy may be performed to remove the prostate gland and surrounding tissue.

Holmium laser prostate (HoLEP) surgery

Holmium laser prostate surgery is a less invasive treatment for an enlarged prostate. The holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) procedure uses a laser to remove tissue that is blocking urine transit through the prostate. Using a different instrument, the prostate tissue is then cut into easily separable portions.

HoLEP is similar to open prostate surgery but does not involve any incisions. HoLEP removes the whole region of the prostate that can obstruct urine flow. It has the potential to be utilised to treat a significantly enlarged prostate.


Chemotherapy is an option for treating advanced prostate cancer that has progressed to other regions of the body. It entails using medications to kill cancer cells.

Lifestyle modifications for managing prostate diseases

In addition to medical treatments, certain lifestyle modifications may help manage the symptoms of prostate disease. These include:

Exercise regularly

Exercise regularly may improve overall health and lower the risk of getting prostate disease.

Maintain a healthy diet

A nutritious diet high in vegetables, fruits, and whole grains can help lower the risk of prostate disease.

Stay hydrated

Drinking plenty of water can help reduce the risk of urinary tract infections and other prostate-related issues.

Practice good hygiene

Washing your hands frequently and wiping from front to back after using the restroom will help lower the chance of urinary tract infections.

Prostate diseases can be challenging to manage, but early detection and treatment can help improve outcomes. If you experience any symptoms of prostate disease, it is essential to speak with your doctor. Remember to maintain a healthy lifestyle and follow your doctor's treatment plan to manage prostate diseases effectively.